Sanaa: Journal of African Arts, Media and Cultures <p><strong><em>Sanaa: Journal of African Arts, Media and Cultures</em></strong> (<strong><em>Sanaa Journal</em>) </strong>ISSN 2507-7775 (Online) ISBN 987-9976-89-652-7 is an annual peer reviewed journal aimed at providing a forum for intellectuals, artists, media experts and creative people within and outside Africa to debate and publish scholarly works in relation to Africa’s arts, media and cultures.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong></p> <ol> <li class="show">To publish issues related to Africa’s arts, media and cultures which are not often covered from a scholarly perspective.</li> <li class="show">To link contemporary arts, media and cultures to the historical past.</li> <li class="show">To build and rejuvenate research interest on Africa’s arts, media and cultures.</li> </ol> University of Dar es salaam en-US Sanaa: Journal of African Arts, Media and Cultures 2507-7775 Legal Challenges to the Protection of Copyrighted Creative Works against Infringement under Cyberspace in Tanzania <p>Science and technology are taking the lead in many aspects of human life. Now it is fashionable to conduct most activities online as opposed to the past time when paper-based transactions were common. The online transaction simplifies the way intellectuals, among other dealers, market their copyrighted works. For example, authors sell books online; designers advertise their designs and musicians sell their musical works through various intermediaries such as websites. Ensuring the smooth conducting of these, internet is an important tool. However, irrespective of its importance in electronic transactions, the internet has been an engine through which pirates infringe upon copyrighted works. Through this infringement, knowledge of intellectuals worth payment is lost with neither payment nor acknowledgement. This article focuses on musical works and films by looking at how copyright law in Tanzania protects them against infringement in cyberspace. The article shares knowledge with the stakeholders such as musicians, actors, authors and their regulatory bodies on how they can fight against online piracy of copyrighted works. It argues that the Tanzania copyright legal framework does not adequately address the infringement of copyrighted works in cyberspace. Consequently, the owners of copyrighted materials and the government lose income from the owners’ creativity. The article recommends that the law needs amendment in response to developments in science and technology. The law should not only address the sale of copyrighted musical works and films online but also the offline dealings resulting from online infringements.</p> Theophil Romward ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-21 2018-04-21 2 1 1 20 African Film Distribution in the United States: Assessment and Prospective Analysis <p>Distribution remains one of the main challenges facing African cinema.&nbsp; Reaching domestic and international audiences is difficult despite the promise of digital technological innovations over the last fifteen years. In fact, scholarship on African film distribution in the United States is currently scarce and limited to a few contributions in articles. These articles have included “African Cinema in the American Video Market” by Cornelius Moore (1992); “La construction identitaire par le cinéma: diaspora africaine aux États-Unis” by Boukary Sawadogo (2017); “Evolving Nollywood Templates for Minor Transnational Film” by Moradewun Adejunmobi (2014); and <em>Nollywood: The Creation of Nigerian Film Genres </em>a monograph by Jonathan Haynes (2016). Yet, the distribution of African films in the United States should be the subject of more sustained scholarly attention, as the market is expanding with diverse African diasporic communities increasing in the country that is home to Hollywood. African films are distributed in North America through four channels: the festival circuit; independent distributors; informal circuits (pirated copies of DVDs sold in subway stations and African stores); and online platforms (Amazon, Netflix, YouTube, Vimeo, irokoTV, etc.). African cinema has to cultivate a niche in a market that is not only dominated by Hollywood big-budget productions but also where other films from around the world compete for visibility.</p> Boukary Sawadogo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-21 2018-04-21 2 1 21 26 Patriarchal Ideology and Modernity as Determining Factors of Masculinity Performance in Kichwa Maji <p>This article examines how patriarchal ideology and modernity determine and influence the performance of masculinity in Euphrase Kezilahabi’s <em>Kichwa Maji.</em> The article argues that various circumstances determine and influence men’s masculinity in the novel. Robert Connell’s theory of masculinity assists in reading and analysing male and female characters in <em>Kichwa Maji</em>. The analysis affirms that the novel portrays masculinity as a socio-cultural construct, which changes according to circumstances. The novel shows that this construct is deeply connected with individuals’ ideologies such as traditional patriarchal and Western ideologies. The novel depicts a deep-seated confrontation between the older and younger generation influenced by the two different ideologies. In the novel, the characters reveal that the traditional set-up determines the men’s masculinity as individuals cannot construct masculine identities outside the socially sanctioned patriarchal codes of conduct. The novel also shows that education and position of privilege influence and determine the construction of masculinity. Through characterisation, the novel builds a case that, although society constructs masculinity in certain ways, masculinity is not a fixed but fluid construct as the men in the story hold multiple and often conflicting masculine positions.</p> Felistas Richard Mahonge ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-21 2018-04-21 2 1 27 40 Twin Phobia: A Hard Nut to Crack Among Haya Communities? <p>In many parts of Africa, twin births were generally and are still events believed to be of extraordinary importance. Traditional African beliefs tend to give twins a special position as sacred monsters and subject them to a variety of ritual celebrations. The different versions of the <em>dogon</em> myth of the creation of the world tell about the symbolic events that led to the separation of the Heaven and the Earth, of gods and the first men on earth, of female and men of religious leaders and other inhabitants.&nbsp;In Achebe’s book, <em>Things Fall Apart </em>that he published in 1958 that has become a staple in literary, history, anthropological and sociology studies, the Earth goddess decreed that the twins were an abomination among the Igbo of Nigeria and, hence, required destruction; otherwise, the community risked suffering the wrath of the goddess should the twins be allowed to live. Consequently, when twins were born among the Igbo, members of the community put them in pots who abandoned them in the ‘evil forest’ to shiver and cry to death.</p> Kamala J. Lutatinisibwa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-21 2018-04-21 2 1 41 46