Sanaa: Journal of African Arts, Media and Cultures <p><strong><em>Sanaa: Journal of African Arts, Media and Cultures</em></strong> (<strong><em>Sanaa Journal</em>) </strong>ISSN 2507-7775 (Online) ISBN 987-9976-89-652-7 is an annual peer reviewed journal aimed at providing a forum for intellectuals, artists, media experts and creative people within and outside Africa to debate and publish scholarly works in relation to Africa’s arts, media and cultures.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong></p> <ol> <li class="show">To publish issues related to Africa’s arts, media and cultures which are not often covered from a scholarly perspective.</li> <li class="show">To link contemporary arts, media and cultures to the historical past.</li> <li class="show">To build and rejuvenate research interest on Africa’s arts, media and cultures.</li> </ol> en-US (Chief Editor.) (For Technical Support, Please Send an E-Mail to:) Mon, 03 Oct 2016 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Copyright Law and Its Use as Property: Lessons for the Creative Arts Sector in Tanzania. <p style="margin: 0px 0px 0px 50.66px; text-align: justify; line-height: 107%;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; font-size: 9.5pt;">Copyright is one class of Intellectual Property that is legally recognised and protected in Tanzania. This protection is anchored in both Tanzania’s international commitments and the country’s domestic laws, which, however, remain hardly known in the creative industry and innovative sector of the country. The international protection of copyrights is also enshrined in the WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT), 1996, WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT), 1996, the Berne Convention for the Protection of Artistic and Literary Works, 1886 and the Treaty Establishing the East African Community, 1999. At the domestic level, protection is guaranteed by the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania, 1977, the Cyber Crimes Act, 2015 and the Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act, 1999 as well as the attendant regulations made under these laws. Lately in Tanzania, there have been growing concerns among authors, innovators and the general public about the real economic significance of these copyright laws and regulations to the authors’ welfare and the national economy at large. This article argues that these concerns are a direct consequence of factors such as lack of requisite legal knowledge on the part of most artists on the economics inherent in dealing with copyright properties, lack of a litigation culture in cases of infringements and the complex nature of copyright infringements in the digital environment, including online piracy. Against this backdrop, this article serves as an “eye-opener” to those in the creative arts industry to enable them to understand the basics of copyright law so that they can benefit from their works. It also seeks to serve as “mind provoker” to other scholars interested in this subject matter and wish to further write on the subject matter or on other branches of Intellectual Property.</span></p> Antidius Kaitu, Roosebert Nimrod ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Mar 2018 11:53:44 +0000 The The Language of Caricatures in Tanzania’s Political Landscape: The Case of Selected, Masoud Kipanya’s Cartoons. <p style="margin: 0px 30.66px 0px 50.66px; text-align: justify; line-height: 107%;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; font-size: 9.5pt;">This paper argues that representations of burning issues in artistically created cartoons provide an alternative option to understanding socio-economic and political themes prevalent in many communities. Based on Masoud Kipanya’s cartoons, the paper demonstrates that the choice of texts and portrayal of politicians complement one another in the delivery of the intended message to the public in Tanzania. This claim is obtained from the analysis of selected stylistic devices in the cartoons. In fact, the register used revolves around terms coined by politicians in the country. The diction in Masoud Kipanya’s cartoons utilises terms such as mchwa and njaa ‘corrupt people’ and malofa ‘cowards, idiots’ which are coined in political arena. Metaphorical expressions used to advance points related to civic rights, corruption, favouritism and developmental plans emerge as main topics of representation in political cartoons in the country. Such subject matters are indirectly pinpointed through metaphorical devices associated with termites, food, eating and majority support as corruption practices and </span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">favouritism are equated to food and eating whereas development is downplayed by termites.</span></span></p> Amani Lusekelo, Ph.D ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Mar 2018 12:05:01 +0000 The The subversion of conventional masculinity and femininity in Euphrase Kezilahabi’s Dunia Uwanja wa Fujo <p><em>Dunia Uwanja wa Fujo </em>is Euphrase Kezilahabi’s novel that dramatises masculinity and femininity in relation to modern perspectives that contrast it with the traditional patriarchal definition of a man and a woman. The novel challenges and deconstructs the essentialists’ perceptions and perspectives of a man’s definition. This paper examines Kezilahabi’s attempt to challenge and deconstruct the traditional patriarchal definition of men and woman in the novel. The paper argues that masculinity and femininity are unisex and are fluid, hence, subject to continual alterations. The paper uses Robert Connell’s perspective of gender as a performed social construct and Judith Butler’s idea of the performative aspect of gender as a theoretical framework to read and interpret characters’ expression and performances in the novels. The analysis reveals that through his male and female characters, Kezilahabi explicitly demonstrates that that the socially-constructed masculinity and femininity constitute positions that can be occupied by both males and females and, hence, can be subverted. Through this novel, Kezilahabi dramatises multiple levels of masculinities and femininities influenced by modernity, Western ideology, education and money. <em>Dunia Uwanja wa Fujo</em> reveals Kezilahabi’s perception of gender as a contested taxonomy because of its mutable and ambivalent manifestations.</p> Felistas Richard Mahonge ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 03 Oct 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Utani relationships in Tanzania: Reflections on ethnic creativity <p>This article looks at ‘joking relationships’—or <em>Utani</em> in Kiswahili—that exists between and among different ethnic groups in Tanzania. Though teasing or joking is abundant in these relationships, <em>Utani</em> serves as a veil around intense and obliging messages. These <em>Utani</em> expressions are widespread in the country. This article uses the Kiswahili term to examine the relationships beyond the joke-like verbal manifestations. Specifically, the article examines the circumstances under which <em>Utani</em> is expressed, the origins of inter-ethnic <em>Utani</em> in Tanzania and the way it is recreated and re-enacted. In conclusion, the article looks at the role <em>Utani</em> plays in Tanzania and lessons for it engenders for the rest of Africa.</p> Daniel K. Ndagala, Ph.D ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 03 Oct 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Though Things Have Changed, This Is How We Used To Celebrate Christmas Day <p>From my infanthood to youth-hood in the 1980s and 1990s, the 25th of December was treated as a great and special day. It was <em>Nweli</em> day, my ethnic pronunciation—thanks to my mother-tongue interference— of an English word ‘Noel’, another name for Christmas Day. Neither my parents nor village mates bothered to know what Christmas actually means. By then, the main knowledge was that it was just a big day (<em>sikukuu</em>), which had to be vigorously celebrated regardless of one’s ethnic nor religious affiliation, with Christians and non-Christians alike joining hands in enjoying it. It took some years for village mates to realise what Christmas day actually meant and that it had some historical roots and spiritual meaning mainly for Christians and not any other man-made religious group.</p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 03 Oct 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Mwandale Mwanyekwa: The renowned Tanzania female Sculptor. <p style="margin: 0px 0px 0px 2.66px; text-align: justify; line-height: 107%;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; font-size: 11.5pt;">The position of women artists in the world has over the last three decades or so become a major concern internationally. The United Nations-sponsored seminar entitled “Creative Women in Changing Societies” held in Oslo, Norway in 1980, for example, examined critical issues of female participation in society and came up with encouraging resolutions. One of such resolutions requested men to get involved in women’s issues “so that all human problems might receive the equal attention of men and women” (Davidson, 1982, p. vii). However, despite the increasing global awareness of the role of women in development, in Tanzania very little has been done to evaluate academically the efforts of women artists. Much has been written on the oppression of women, (Mascarenhas &amp; Mbilinyi, 1982) but very little on their achievements, as time has shown. Besides, the Tanzania Gender Networking Programme (1993, p.97), a local NGO, agrees that “the field of cultural studies is under-researched in Tanzania and, indeed, in Africa in general, in spite of its obvious significance to women and other disempowered groups, and to the African continent as a whole”. It is against this background that the author wishes to discuss the art of Mwanyekwa and her contribution to the study of contemporary Tanzanian visual arts.</span></p> Frank Gabriel Sika ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 03 Oct 2016 00:00:00 +0000 The The Swahili Carved Doors <p style="margin: 0px 0px 0px 48px; text-align: justify; line-height: 108%;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 108%; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; font-size: 11.5pt;">The famous Swahili carved doors, which are also known as Zanzibar carved doors, are important art objects of the Swahili coast which runs from Mogadishu in Somalia to adjacent places such as Madagascar, Comoros, Zanzibar, Pemba, Bagamoyo and Lamu. However, much of the discussion in the literature on the doors lack a framework for analysis to enable the average reader as well as an art student to follow the argumentation and elucidation systematically. This paper adopts a framework for the analysis of artworks conceived by Prof. Elias Jengo in his several lectures on traditional as well as contemporary art. The framework is made up of four interrelated components such as patronage, stylistic characteristics, social functions and the media. We shall use these in our analysis of the carved doors.</span></p> Suitbert Elzear Komba ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 03 Oct 2016 00:00:00 +0000 When Social Work Meets Theatre in Tanzania <p style="margin: 0px 2.66px 0px 1.33px; text-align: justify; line-height: 104%;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 104%; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; font-size: 11pt;">It seems like I have always been curious about people, places, and cultures. I remember growing up in New York with its diversity of peoples, cultures, foods, and communities. For me, at that time, I would look at the people wondering why they came to New York. Why would they leave India, the Caribbean, Africa, and other places on this earth to be in there? Of course, I knew little about the rest of the world, however, I was curious, and took every opportunity to speak with others about their cultures, native lands, and their likes or dislikes for life in the Big Apple. It was unimaginable that I might someday get an intimate view of life anywhere except New York.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0px; line-height: 7pt;"><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">&nbsp;</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0px 2.66px 0px 1.33px; text-align: justify; line-height: 114%;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 114%; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; font-size: 11pt;">Yet, the day did come after college and graduate school. I moved to the US Virgin Islands. From there I developed an even greater curiosity about other cultures because there were so many people from different island cultures living together in harmony. I worked in a mental health clinic where the manifestation of mental illness through diverse cultures was fascinating. The idea that various cultures celebrated differently had different illnesses, which had to be treated with their cultures in mind encouraged me to study cultural differences. As an American social worker, I felt at a disadvantage because I had been educated as a social worker with very little insight into social ills impacting different cultures. I decided I needed to get better educated about culture, social development, and worlds other than the one in which I lived.</span></p> Delma S. Jackson, Ph.D ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 03 Oct 2016 00:00:00 +0000 The The Authenticity of Today’s Tingatinga Art. <p style="margin: 0px 2.66px 0px 49.33px; text-align: justify; line-height: 102%;"><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">This study analyses the authenticity of Tingatinga style in the Tingatinga Painting School and explores factors that influenced the stylistic evolution of the first and second generations. The term “school” in this context refers to a group of artists deploy a similar style in their work and not an educational institution. The study compares and contrasts the styles of the two generations Tingatinga paintings in terms of their form and content. Specifically, the study explores whether the present-day Tingatinga paintings are authentic in addition to analysing the factors that account for stylistic changes. Such information is of immense interest to scholars, museum curators, art collectors, tourists and gallery owners at home and abroad. The findings indicate that the changes that occur in Tingatinga art constitute a stylistic evolution in response to cultural change in society. One should not expect, for instance, a Tingatinga painter who flourished in 2011 to paint like the one who flourished in 1968. For any art to have an intensive communication it has to change with time and adapt to prevailing cultural aspects. These changes, however, do not render the arts unauthentic, although for many years, there has been a tendency to treat art produced by informally-educated Africans as authentic. It is, therefore, possible that the authenticity of Tingatinga paintings, in the eyes of western patrons, originates from this attitude.</span></span></p> Kiagho B Kilonzo, Ph.D ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000